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Sevastyan Antonov
Sevastyan Antonov

WHO Classification Of Skin Tumours


The type of skin cancer a person gets is determined by where the cancer begins. If the cancer begins in skin cells called basal cells, the person has basal cell skin cancer. When cells that give our skin its color become cancerous, melanoma develops.




WHO Classification of Skin Tumours


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Basal cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of skin cancer. It looks like a flesh-colored, pearl-like bump, or pinkish patch of skin. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC)This is the most common type of skin cancer.


Squamous cell carcinoma: The second most common type of skin cancer. Often looks like a red firm bump, scaly patch, or a sore that heals and then re-opens. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skinSCC is the second most common type of skin cancer.


Melanoma: The deadliest form of skin cancer. Frequently develops in a mole or suddenly appears as a new dark spot on the skin. MelanomaMelanoma is often called "the most serious skin cancer" because it has a tendency to spread.


You can reduce your risk of skin cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Checking your skin for suspicious changes can help detect skin cancer at its earliest stages. Early detection of skin cancer gives you the greatest chance for successful skin cancer treatment.


Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that most often develops on areas of skin exposed to the sun, such as the face. On white skin, basal cell carcinoma often looks like a bump that's skin-colored or pink.


Skin cancer affects people of all skin tones, including those with darker complexions. When melanoma occurs in people with dark skin tones, it's more likely to occur in areas not normally exposed to the sun, such as the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.


Most often, squamous cell carcinoma occurs on sun-exposed areas of your body, such as your face, ears and hands. People with darker skin are more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma on areas that aren't often exposed to the sun.


Melanoma can develop anywhere on your body, in otherwise normal skin or in an existing mole that becomes cancerous. Melanoma most often appears on the face or the trunk of affected men. In women, this type of cancer most often develops on the lower legs. In both men and women, melanoma can occur on skin that hasn't been exposed to the sun.


Make an appointment with your doctor if you notice any changes to your skin that worry you. Not all skin changes are caused by skin cancer. Your doctor will investigate your skin changes to determine a cause.


Skin cancer begins in the cells that make up the outer layer (epidermis) of your skin. One type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma begins in the basal cells, which make skin cells that continuously push older cells toward the surface. As new cells move upward, they become flattened squamous cells, where a skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma can occur. Melanoma, another type of skin cancer, arises in the pigment cells (melanocytes).


Much of the damage to DNA in skin cells results from ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight and in the lights used in tanning beds. But sun exposure doesn't explain skin cancers that develop on skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. This indicates that other factors may contribute to your risk of skin cancer, such as being exposed to toxic substances or having a condition that weakens your immune system.


You absorb UV radiation year-round, and clouds offer little protection from damaging rays. Avoiding the sun at its strongest helps you avoid the sunburns and suntans that cause skin damage and increase your risk of developing skin cancer. Sun exposure accumulated over time also may cause skin cancer.


Wear protective clothing. Sunscreens don't provide complete protection from UV rays. So cover your skin with dark, tightly woven clothing that covers your arms and legs, and a broad-brimmed hat, which provides more protection than a baseball cap or visor does.


Ask your doctor or pharmacist about the side effects of any medications you take. If they increase your sensitivity to sunlight, take extra precautions to stay out of the sun in order to protect your skin.


Central Nervous System Tumours is the sixth volume in the 5th edition of the WHO series on the classification of human tumours. This series (also known as the WHO Blue Books) is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of tumours and comprises a unique synthesis of histopathological diagnosis with digital and molecular pathology. These authoritative and concise reference books provide indispensable international standards for anyone involved in the care of patients with cancer or in cancer research, underpinning individual patient treatment as well as research into all aspects of cancer causation, prevention, therapy, and education.


  • processing.... Drugs & Diseases > Oncology Cutaneous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Staging Updated: Aug 20, 2021 Author: Marvaretta M Stevenson, MD; Chief Editor: Guy J Petruzzelli, MD, PhD, MBA, FACS more...

Share Email Print Feedback Close Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp webmd.ads2.defineAd(id: 'ads-pos-421-sfp',pos: 421); Sections Cutaneous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Staging Sections Cutaneous Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Staging TNM Classification Tables References TNM Classification The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) classification, prognostic staging groups, and histologic grades for cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck are provided below. [1]


* Deep invasion is defined as invasion beyond the subcutaneous fat or > 6 cm (as measured from the granular layer of adjacent normal epidermis to the base of the tumor); perineural invasion for T3 classification is defined as tumor cells within the nerve sheath of a nerve lying deeper than the dermis or measuring 0.1 mm or larger in caliber, or presenting with clinical or radiographic involvement of named nerves without skull base invasion or transgression.


The WHO Classification of Skin Tumours is the 11th volume in the 4th edition of the WHO series on the classification of human tumours. The series (also known as the Blue Books) has long been regarded by pathologists as the gold standard for the diagnosis of tumours, and it is an indispensable guide for the design of evaluations, clinical trials, and studies involving cancer. These authoritative and concise reference books provide an international standard for anyone involved in cancer research or the care of cancer patients. Diagnostic criteria, pathological features, and genetic and other associated molecular alterations are described in a disease-oriented manner.


The editors expect that this volume will be of particular interest to pathologists, oncologists, and dermatologists who manage or research skin tumours. Sections are included on all recognized neoplasms (and their variants) of the skin and its adnexae. Since the previous edition, there have been particularly substantial changes to the classification of melanoma, based on the latest information from genetic and molecular studies.


Table of contents1. Keratinocytic/epidermal tumours 2. Melanocytic tumours 3. Appendageal tumours 4. Haematolymphoid tumours 5. Soft tissue and neural tumours 6. Inherited tumour syndromes associated with skin malignancies


Sometimes, radiologists encounter malignant skin tumors (MSTs) during image interpretation. As MSTs require different clinical management modalities for each histological subtype, accurate preoperative diagnosis is essential. The histological subtypes of MST can be easily assessed by visual inspection or biopsy. Therefore, the significant role of radiological imaging in MSTs is to evaluate the extent of local invasion, nodal involvement, and distant metastasis, and the histological estimation of MSTs by radiological imaging has not been reported until a few years ago. However, recent studies have revealed characteristic radiological features for differential diagnosis of MSTs, such as configuration, intratumoral homogeneity, signal intensity, cyst formation, and hemorrhage. Other important clinical data for determining the histological subtype of MST include age, gender, and site of occurrence. MSTs can be categorized as epidermal, melanocytic, adnexal, and mesenchymal tumors based on the origin and have distinctive characteristics. Hence, this review article was designed to describe the clinical and radiological features of MSTs.


Malignant skin tumor (MST), classified into melanoma and non-melanoma, is a common type of malignancy with high incidence rates worldwide [1]. The three most common histological subtypes include cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (cBCCs), cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs), and cutaneous malignant melanomas (cMMs). Skin is the largest organ of the body, covering approximately 16% of the total body weight, and is organized into two primary layers: the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis is the peripheral layer of the skin, which is composed of cornified, granular, spinous, and basal layers. The dermis underlies the epidermis and anchorages cutaneous structures, such as hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands [2]. cBCCs and cSCCs originate from the epidermal layer, whereas adnexal tumors occur in the dermal layer (Table 1). Mesenchymal tumors occur in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue layer. 041b061a72


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